On October 29th, 1861, Robert Schell, a white man, walked into a San Francisco barbershop, pulled out a gun and shot George Gordon, the African American proprietor. There were eyewitnesses to the killing, but there was one problem. They were all black. And at the time, California had laws that banned black people or “mulattoes” from testifying against whites in court. So, the judge refused to allow the witnesses to give evidence about what they had seen. There was however, one white man who had also seen Schell commit the murder. Or at least he identified as white. But the defense attorney objected to his testimony as well, claiming that he was really black. The judge ordered James Cowes, the witness, to undergo a humiliating physical examination of the hair all over his body to determine his race. Supposed racial science experts concluded that Cowes was in fact black, and he was not allowed to testify. Without his key testimony, the killer got a lenient sentence of just two years. The murder of the prominent black businessman and civil rights activist caused a public outcry and galvanized opposition to the .
Testimony Exclusion Laws: In 1850, the California Legislature was dominated by pro-slavery Democrat lawmakers or “Chivs,” who began passing a series of laws that blocked “blacks, mulattoes, and Indians” from testifying against whites in court—in both criminal and civil cases. White people literally got away with murder when testimony from black witnesses was ruled inadmissible—for the sole reason of their race. In 1854, the ban was extended to Chinese people. The ban on black testimony was repealed in 1863, but wasn’t lifted for other people of color until 1872.
California Book of Statutes, 1850
Chapter 99: An Act Concerning Crimes and Punishment:
No black or mulatto person, or Indian, shall be allowed to give evidence in favor of or against a white man.
RACIAL SCIENCE IN A SAN FRANCISCO COURTROOM
The story of the George Gordon killing
Narrated by Martin Luther McCoy
On the racist legacy of black testimony laws and the discrediting of black courtroom testimony that persists to this day.
The Colored Conventions were a monumental organizing effort by black people across the country to fight for full citizenship rights. The conventions laid a foundation that the civil rights movement would build on.
In the first test of California’s Fugitive Slave Law, three formerly enslaved black men who had built a lucrative mining supply business were stripped of their freedom and deported back to Mississippi.
After waging a long battle against California’s anti-black laws, Mifflin Wistar Gibbs, a prominent civil rights activist and entrepreneur in San Francisco, helped lead a migration of several hundred African Americans to Victoria, British Columbia.
Mary Ellen Pleasant was a self-made millionaire and leading abolitionist based in San Francisco during the Gold-Rush era.
The mission of Gold Chains is to uncover the hidden history of slavery in California by lifting up the voices of courageous African American and Native American individuals who challenged their brutal treatment and demanded their civil rights, inspiring us with their ingenuity, resilience, and tenacity. We aim to expose the role of the courts, laws, and the tacit acceptance of white supremacy in sanctioning race-based violence and discrimination that continues into the present day. Through an unflinching examination of our collective past, we invite California to become truly aware and authentically enlightened.